Pulsed Water-splitters No.3(パルスを用いた水の分解)

A Practical Guide to Free-Energy Devices
Author: Patrick J. Kelly

Chapter 10: Automotive Systems No.3

This is the section of the circuit which does this:


The 100 ohm resistor and the 100 microfarad capacitor are there to iron out any ripples in the voltage supply to the circuit, caused by fierce pulses in the power drive to the electrolysis cell. The capacitor acts as a reservoir of electricity and the resistor prevents that reservoir being suddenly drained if the power supply line is suddenly, and very briefly, pulled down to a low voltage. Between them, they keep the voltage at point “A” at a steady level, allowing the 555 chip to operate smoothly.
100Ω抵抗と100μFコンデンサーは、電気分解セルを強烈なパルスでパワードライブさせる回路への電圧供給において機能します。 コンデンサと抵抗器は、電力を貯める機能をし、突然の電圧降下を防ぐために機能します。それらの間では、555チップがスムーズに作動し、ポイント「A」で安定した電圧を保ちます。

The very small capacitor “B” is wired up physically very close to the chip. It is there to short-circuit any stray, very short, very sharp voltage pulses picked up by the wiring to the chip. It is there to help the chip to operate exactly as it is designed to do, and is not really a functional part of the circuit. So, for understanding how the circuit works, we can ignore them and see the circuit like this:


This circuit generates output pulses of the type shown in green with the voltage going high, (the “Mark”) and low (the “Space”). The 47K variable resistor (which some people insist on calling a “pot”) allows the length of the Mark and the Space to be adjusted from the 50 - 50 shown, to say, 90 - 10 or any ratio through to 10 - 90. It should be mentioned that the “47K” is not at all critical and these are quite likely to be sold as “50K” devices. Most low cost components have a plus or minus 10% rating which means that a 50K resistor will be anything from 45K to 55K in actual value.

The two “1N4148” diodes are there to make sure that when the Mark/Space 47K variable resistor is adjusted, that it does not alter the frequency of the output waveform in any way. The remaining two components: the 10K variable resistor and the 47 microfarad capacitor, both marked in blue, control the number of pulses produced per second. The larger the capacitor, the fewer the pulses per second. The lower the value of the variable resistor, the larger the number of pulses per second.

The circuit can have additional frequency tuning ranges, if the capacitor value is altered by switching in a different capacitor. So the circuit can be made more versatile by the addition of one switch and, say, two alternative capacitors, as shown here:


The capacitors shown here are unusually large because this particular circuit is intended to run relatively slowly. In the almost identical section of the circuit which follows this one, the capacitors are very much smaller which causes the switching rate to be very much higher. Experience has shown that a few people have had overheating in this circuit when it is switched out of action, so the On/Off switch has been expanded to be a two-pole changeover switch and the second pole used to switch out the timing elements of the 555 chip. The complete version of this section of the circuit is then:


which just has one additional switch to allow the output to be stopped and the 12-volt supply line to be fed instead. The reason for this is that this part of the circuit is used to switch On and Off an identical circuit. This is called “gating” and is explained in Chapter 12 which is an electronics tutorial.
12Vの出力を停止することができる追加スイッチを設けて、12Vの電源ラインの代わりに供給する。 その理由は、同一の回路を切り替えるために、回路の同じ部分が使用されることです。これは、「ゲート回路」と呼ばれて、電子機器のチュートリアルである第12章で説明されます。

The second part of the circuit is intended to run at much higher speeds, so it uses much smaller capacitors:


So, putting them together, and allowing the first circuit to switch the second one On and Off, we get:


The final section of the circuit is the power drive for the electrolyser cell. This is a very simple circuit. Firstly, the output of the second 555 chip is lowered by a basic voltage-divider pair of resistors, and fed to the Gate of the output transistor:


Here, the 555 chip output voltage is lowered by 220 / 820 or about 27%. When the voltage rises, it causes the BUZ350 transistor to switch on, short-circuiting between its Drain and Source connections and applying the whole of the 12-volt supply voltage across the load, which in our application, is the electrolyser cell:


The transistor drives the electrolysis electrodes as shown above, applying very sharp, very short pulses to them. What is very important are the wire coils which are placed on each side of the electrode set. These coils are linked magnetically because they are wound together on a high-frequency ferrite rod core and although a coil is such a simple thing, these coils have a profound effect on how the circuit operates. Firstly, they convert the 555 chip pulse into a very sharp, very short, high-voltage pulse which can be as high as 1,200 volts. This pulse affects the local environment, causing extra energy to flow into the circuit. The coils now perform a second role by blocking that additional energy from short-circuiting through the battery, and causing it to flow through the electrolysis cell, splitting the water into a mix of hydrogen and oxygen, both gases being high-energy, highly charged atomic versions of those gases. This gives the mix some 400% the power of hydrogen being burned in air.

When the transistor switches off, the coils try to pull the transistor Drain connection down to a voltage well below the 0-volt battery line. To prevent this, a 1N4007 diode is connected across the cell and its coils. The diode is connected so that no current flows through it until the transistor Drain gets dragged down below the 0-volt line, but then that happens, the diode effectively gets turned over and as soon as 0.7 volts is placed across it, it starts to conduct heavily and collapses the negative voltage swing, protecting the transistor, and importantly, keeping the pulsed waveform restricted to positive DC pulses, which is essential for tapping this extra environmental energy which is what actually performs the electrolysis. You can easily tell that it is the environmental “cold” electricity which is doing the electrolysis as the cell stays cold even though it is putting out large volumes of gas. If the electrolysis were being done by conventional electricity, the cell temperature would rise during the electrolysis. A John Bedini pulser circuit can be used very effectively with a cell of this type and it adjusts automatically to the resonant frequency as the cell is part of the frequency-determining circuit.
トランジスタのスイッチがOFFのとき、コイルは、トランジスタのドレン(d)接続を抜き取り、バッテリー線の電圧を0Vまで下げようとします。これを防止するために、セルおよびそのコイルを横切って1N4007ダイオードが接続されます。ダイオードが接続されて 0ボルトラインに引きずられるので、電流はトランジスタのドレン(d)まで全く流れません、しかし、ダイオードは順方向電圧が0.7Vに達しないと電流がながれません。スタート時の動作は重く、負の電圧振幅を潰しトランジスタを保護します。そして重要なのは、直流パルス化された波形を(+)に限定されるようにしておくこと、それらは、電解を実行するのに追加されるであろう周囲のエネルギーを利用するのに不可欠なものです。電解セルが電気分解をして大量の水素混合ガスを放出しても、冷たいまま(発熱しない)なので、あなたは、環境に配慮した「冷たい」電気であると簡単に言うことができます。もしも、従来通りの電気分解が行われるなら、セル温度は電気分解の間、上昇することでしょう。ジョンBedini氏のパルス回路は、このタイプのセルを使用することで非常に効果的に使用されます、そして、セルが周波数決定する回路の一部であるので、それは自動的に共振周波数に調整されます

The BUZ350 MOSFET has a current rating of 22 amps so it will run cool in this application. However, it is worth mounting it on an aluminium plate which will act as both the mounting and a heat sink but it should be realised that this circuit is a bench-testing circuit with a maximum current output of about 2 amps and it is not a Pulse-Width Modulation circuit for a high-current DC electrolyser. The current draw in this arrangement is particularly interesting. With just one tube in place, the current draw is about one amp. When a second tube is added, the current increases by less than half an amp. When the third is added, the total current is under two amps. The fourth and fifth tubes add about 100 milliamps each and the sixth tube causes almost no increase in current at all. This suggests that the efficiency could be raised further by adding a large number of additional tubes, but this is actually not the case as the cell arrangement is important. Stan Meyer ran his VolksWagen car for four years on the output from four of these cells with 16-inch (400 mm) electrodes, and Stan would have made a single larger cell had that been feasible.
BUZ350 MOSFET [電界効果トランジスタ(FET)の一種、パワーMOSFET(英:Power MOSFET)、大電力を取り扱うように設計されたMOSFETのこと。 他のパワーデバイスと比較するとスイッチング速度が速く、低電圧領域での変換効率が高い為、200V以下の領域で、スイッチング電源や、DC-DCコンバータ等に用いられる。] は、22Aの定格電流なので、動作中は涼しく動くでしょう。しかし、それを実装するとき、アルミニウムプレート上に設置することや、同様にアルミのヒートシンクをつけることは価値があります。しかし、この回路が約2Aの最大電流出力ベンチテスト回路であり、大電流(直流)で電気分解をするための、PWM(パルス幅変調回路)でないことを理解するべきです。そして、次に書く電流の流れ方は、特に興味深いものです。1つのチューブがある時は、電流は約1Aです。2番目のチューブが追加されると、電流は0.5A以下で増加します。3番目のチューブが追加されると、全体の電流は2A弱になります。4番目と5番目のチューブが追加されると、それぞれ約100mAで増大します。そして、6番目のチューブは、追加されても電流はほとんど増加しません。これは、チューブを多数追加することによって、効率がさらに良くなる可能性を示 していますが、事例として、チューブの配置の方が重要(分解効率に影響する)なので、本数はそれほど重要ではありません。スタン・マイヤー氏は、4本の電極チューブ、長さ16インチ(400mm)の(水素混合ガス)アウトプットにおいて、彼のフォルクスワーゲンを4年間走らせました。そして、本数や配置が重要でなければ、スタン氏は単一のより大きいセルを作ったことでしょう。

Although the current is not particularly high, a five or six amp circuit-breaker, or fuse, should be placed between the power supply and the circuit, to protect against accidental short-circuits. If a unit like this is to be mounted in a vehicle, then it is essential that the power supply is arranged so that the electrolyser is disconnected if the engine is switched off. Passing the electrical power through a relay which is powered via the ignition switch is a good solution for this. It is also vital that at least one bubbler is placed between the electrolyser and the engine, to give some protection if the gas should get ignited by an engine malfunction.










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